Austria history: chronology

 ♦ 5000 BCE Late Stone Age culture.
 ♦ 2000 Indo-Germanic settlements northwest of Vienna.
 ♦ 800 Bronze Age settlements on the Vienna Hoher Markt.
 ♦ 750 Hallstatt culture.
 ♦ 400 Celtic culture.
 ♦ 15 Roman occupation of province of Noricum.
 ♦ 180 CE Death of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius in Vindobona.
 ♦ 280 Emperor Probus authorizes viticulture in Danubian region.
 ♦ 405 Roman withdrawal from Vindobona.
 ♦ 433 Vindobona destroyed by Huns.
 ♦ 500700 Invasion and sporadic occupation by Lombards, Goths, Avars, and Slavic tribes. Increased settlement by Bavarian tribes. After 782 Establishment of Carolingian Eastern March or Ostmark.
 ♦ 909 Invasion of Eastern March by Hungarians.
 ♦ 955 German Emperor Otto I defeats Hungarians and reestablishes the Eastern March.
 ♦ 975 Otto I names Leopold of Babenberg margrave in the Eastern March.
 ♦ 1156 Privilegium minus. The Babenberg Henry II Jasomirgott is given extensive legal privileges in his Austrian lands by Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa). These effectively exempted the Babenberg holdings from feudal obligations to the emperor and marked the beginning of ducal territorial sovereignty in Austria.
 ♦ 1246 Death of the last Babenberg, Frederick II the Quarrelsome. Subsequent invasion of Austrian lands by Ottakar II, the king of Bohemia.
 ♦ 1273 Count Rudolph of Habsburg crowned German king. He was never officially crowned as emperor by a pope.
 ♦ 12781282 Rudolph I becomes ruler of Austria after defeating Ottakar II of Bohemia. He enfeoffs himself and his family with the former Babenberg possessions. The city of Vienna given its charter in 1278.
 ♦ 13581359 Privilegium maius. Although a forgery, this document, issued by Archduke Rudolph IV, was eventually confirmed by a later Habsburg, Emperor Frederick III, in 1443 and 1452. It conferred the title of archduke or archduchess on the Habsburg dynasty and laid the groundwork for other important privileges of the house.
 ♦ 1365 Foundation of the University of Vienna by Archduke Rudolph IV.
 ♦ 1442 Frederick V of Austria becomes German king. In 1452, he was crowned Emperor Frederick III by Pope Nicholas V in Rome, the last time that the imperial coronation would take place in that city. From that time until Napoleon I’s dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, control of the imperial office would be in Habsburg hands. The lone exception was the period 1742–1745.
 ♦ 1477 Marriage of Archduke Maximilian, son of Emperor Frederick III, to Mary of Burgundy.
 ♦ 1495 Marriage of Archduke Philip (Philip the Handsome) to Infanta Juana, daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile.
 ♦ 1515 Vienna Double Betrothal Agreement engaging Maximilian I’s granddaughter, Archduchess Mary, to Prince Louis of Hungary and Bohemia, and Louis’s sister, Princess Anna, to one of Mary’s two brothers, Archduke Charles or Archduke Ferdinand.
 ♦ 1516 Archduke Charles (Emperor Charles V) becomes king of Spain.
 ♦ 1521/1522 Austrian Habsburg lands turned over to Archduke Ferdinand I for governance. Marriage in 1521 of Ferdinand and Princess Anna of Hungary.
 ♦ 1526 Battle of Mohács between the Ottoman army of Suleyman the Magnificent and Hungarians. King Louis of Hungary and Bohemia killed. Archduke Ferdinand elected as King Ferdinand I in Bohemia, Hungary, and Croatia.
 ♦ 1529 Ottoman army forced to break off its siege of Vienna.
 ♦ 1551 Ferdinand I brings Jesuit order to Vienna in effort to stem Protestantism, which was spreading quickly in the Austrian lands.
 ♦ 1618 Defenestration of Prague signals rejection of Habsburg rule in Bohemia by estates. Opening stage of Thirty Years’ War.
 ♦ 1620 Habsburg victory over Bohemian estates at Battle of the White Mountain. Beginning of major Habsburg efforts to consolidate the powers of the dynasty in their various territories.
 ♦ 1648 Treaty of Westphalia ends Thirty Years’ War. Habsburg efforts to recatholicize Germany come to a halt.
 ♦ 1683 Ottoman forces driven back from their last siege of Vienna. Beginning of Habsburg reconquest of Hungary and areas in southeastern Europe from Ottoman control.
 ♦ 17011714 War of the Spanish Succession. Austrian Habsburgs abandon claims to Spanish throne.
 ♦ 1713 Pragmatic Sanction of Emperor Charles VI, which declares the unity of the Habsburg lands in preparation for the succession of his daughter, Maria Theresa.
 ♦ 17161750 Period of construction of major Baroque architectural features of Vienna. Lower Belvedere Palace of Eugene of Savoy completed in 1716, Karlskirche (Church of St. Charles Borromeo) begun in 1719, Imperial Hall of State (Prunksaal) of the Hofburg and the Upper Belvedere Palace finished 1724–1726. Schönbrunn Palace completed in 1730, then adapted for Maria Theresa, 1744–1749.
 ♦ 17401748 War of the Austrian Succession/First and Second Silesian Wars. Maria Theresa’s succession to Austrian lands challenged. Attack by Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia on Silesia. In the Treaty of Aix-laChapelle of October 1748, Maria Theresa cedes Silesia to Frederick the Great. Pragmatic Sanction recognized by signatories. Period of major restructuring of Habsburg financial and military administration follows.
 ♦ 17561763 Seven Years’ War/Third War of the Austrian Succession. Failed Austrian attempt to regain Silesia from Prussia. Treaty of Hubertusburg reconfirms Prussian seizure of Silesia. Frederick the Great promises to support Maria Theresa’s son, Archduke Joseph, in imperial German election.
 ♦ 1772 First Partition of Poland. Habsburg Empire acquires Galicia, part of Cracow and part of modern Ukraine (L’viv).
 ♦ 17781779 War of the Bavarian Succession.
 ♦ 17801790 Reign of Emperor Joseph II. Influenced by progressive notions of enlightened absolutism, Joseph issues edicts (1781) granting religious toleration and emancipation of serfs throughout the empire. There is intense local resistance to many administrative reforms, especially in Austrian Netherlands and Hungary.
 ♦ 1795 Third Partition of Poland. Habsburg Empire acquires rest of Cracow.
 ♦ 1801 Peace of Lunéville. Territorial breakup of Holy Roman Empire.
 ♦ 1806 Title of Holy Roman Emperor abolished. Francis I becomes Emperor Francis I of Austria.
 ♦ 1809 Uprising in the Tyrol against Franco–Bavarian occupation. Count Klemens Wenzel von Metternich appointed minister of foreign affairs by Francis I.
 ♦ 18141815 Congress of Vienna.
 ♦ 18151848 Vormärz (Pre-March). Under direction of Francis I and his chancellor, Metternich, political activity is strictly regulated. Period of rich musical and theatrical life. Biedermeier style emerges.
 ♦ 1848 Revolutions throughout Habsburg Empire. December: Francis Joseph I becomes Austrian emperor.
 ♦ 1849 Hungary declares independence. Revolutions generally suppressed by Habsburg army.
 ♦ 1851 New Year’s Eve Patent declares supremacy of Austrian emperor. Empire largely administered directly from Vienna.
 ♦ 1852 Beginning of construction of Semmering mountain rail line between Lower Austria and Styria.
 ♦ 1855 Concordat between Austria and the Holy See.
 ♦ 1859 Austro–Piedmontese War.
 ♦ 1860 October Diploma proposes a measure of decentralization in Austrian Empire.
 ♦ 1861 February Patent creates Imperial Assembly for all lands of Austrian Empire. Hungarian boycott.
 ♦ 1862 Treaty of Villa Franca. Habsburg Empire cedes Lombardy to Napoleon III of France, who turns the territory over to King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia–Piedmont.
 ♦ 1864 Austro–Prussian–Danish War.
 ♦ 1866 Seven Weeks’ War.
 ♦ 1867 Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich). Habsburg Empire becomes Dual Monarchy of Austria–Hungary. Hungary becomes internally autonomous. Ruler, foreign policy, army, and some financial matters declared to be in common.
 ♦ 18671873 Intense industrial and commercial development in Austrian half of Dual Monarchy (Gründerzeit ).
 ♦ 1873 Vienna World’s Fair. Financial crisis.
 ♦ 1878 Congress of Berlin. Austria–Hungary allowed to administer Bosnia–Herzegovina and the Sanjak of Novi Bazaar. Occupation of Novi Bazaar begins in 1879.
 ♦ 1879 Celebration of silver wedding anniversary of Emperor Franz Joseph and Empress Elisabeth (“Sissy”) in April with massive historical pageant. Count Edward Taaffe becomes minister-president of antiliberal coalition government. October: Dual Alliance of Austria–Hungary and Germany.
 ♦ 1882 Triple Alliance of Austria–Hungary, Germany, and Italy. Electoral reform in Austrian half of monarchy lowers to five gulden the amount of income tax required to exercise franchise. German National Association founded.
 ♦ 1883 Establishment of Austrian–Hungarian postal savings bank.
 ♦ 1887 Founding of Christian Social Union in Vienna.
 ♦ 1888 Development in Vienna of a four-cylinder, gasoline-powered automobile by Siegfried Marcus.
 ♦ 18881889 31 December1 January: Hainfeld Program unites factions of Austrian Social Democratic movement. 30 January: Deaths of heir apparent Archduke Rudolph and Mary Vetsera. April 4: Introduction of obligatory accident insurance for workers. 20 April: Birth of Adolf Hitler in Braunau in Upper Austria.
 ♦ 1890 First socialist May Day celebration. 8 November: Founding of Christian Social Party.
 ♦ 1897 14 April: Emperor Franz Joseph confirms Karl Lueger as mayor of Vienna. 22 May: First Vienna Secession founded, with Gustav Klimt as president. 2628 November: Parliamentary crisis in Austrian half of the Habsburg Empire over Badeni Language Ordinances.
 ♦ 1898 10 September: Assassination of Empress Elisabeth in Geneva by Italian anarchist.
 ♦ 1899 Founding of the Federation of Austrian Women’s Organizations.
 ♦ October. Opening of Vienna Municipal Gas Works.
 ♦ 1902 Completion of Vienna Municipal Electric Works.
 ♦ 1903 12 May: Founding of Wiener Werkstätte.
 ♦ 1907 26 January: Introduction of general male suffrage in Austrian half of Habsburg Empire. September: Adolf Hitler makes his failed attempt to enter the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts.
 ♦ 1908 5 July: Annexation of Bosnia–Herzegovina.
 ♦ 1910 10 March: Death of Vienna Mayor Karl Lueger. Founding of the Vienna and International Psychoanalytic Society.
 ♦ 1912 30 September: Outbreak of First Balkan War.
 ♦ 1913 30 May: End of First Balkan War. 30 July10 August: Second Balkan War. First productive oil well east of Vienna opened.
 ♦ 1914 28 June: Assassination of heir apparent to Habsburg Empire, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, in Sarajevo. 28 July: Emperor Francis Joseph declares war on Serbia.
 ♦ 1915 4 May: Italy declares War on Austria–Hungary.
 ♦ 1916 21 October: Assassination of Austrian minister-president Count Karl von Stürgkh by Friedrich Adler, son of Austrian Social Democratic leader Viktor Adler. 21 November: Death of Emperor Franz Joseph. Emperor Charles I (King Charles IV of Hungary) succeeds to crowns of Austria–Hungary.
 ♦ 1917 30 May: Emperor Charles reconvenes suspended parliament of Austrian half of monarchy. 4 December: United States declares war on Austria–Hungary.
 ♦ 1918 8 January: President Woodrow Wilson offers Fourteen Points for peace in World War I. 16 October: Emperor Charles I issues manifesto turning Habsburg Empire into a federal state, recognizing national autonomy. 11 November: Emperor Charles withdraws from all participation in the business of state. 12 November: Announcement of the founding of the Republic of German Austria.
 ♦ 1919 12 March: National Assembly declares that Austria is a part of the Republic of Germany. 15 March: Territorial Commission of the Paris Peace Conference confirms the integrity of existing boundaries between Austria and Germany. 3 April: Expropriation of Habsburgs and expulsion from Austria. September: Austria and the victorious allies sign Peace of St. Germain. October: Name of Austria officially changed from “German Austria” to “Austria.”
 ♦ 1920 4 June: Hungary signs Treaty of Trianon, which calls for the incorporation of the Burgenland into Austria. 16 December: Austria joins League of Nations.
 ♦ 1921 26 March4 April and 2024 October: Former Emperor (King) Charles fails to restore himself to throne in Hungary.
 ♦ 1922 31 May: Ignaz Seipel, of the Christian Social Party, forms his first government, with himself as federal chancellor. 4 October: With the Austrian currency, the crown, at all-time low, Seipel arranges for state loan from the League of Nations.
 ♦ 1923 12 April: Founding of the Republican Guard, paramilitary arm of the Social Democratic Party of Austria. 20 November: Karl Seitz, a Social Democrat, becomes mayor of Vienna.
 ♦ 1924 12 June: Attempted assassination of Chancellor Seipel. December: Schilling becomes Austrian currency.
 ♦ 1925 10 March: Assassination of Jewish author Hugo Bettenauer by a National Socialist. 30 July: Constitutional reform centralizes Austrian financial administration.
 ♦ 1926 9 June: League of Nations lifts supervision of Austrian government finances.
 ♦ 1927 9 July: Workers’ demonstration in Vienna ends in burning of the Ministry of Justice building. Police action leaves 90 dead and approximately 600 wounded. 26 November: Unsuccessful attempt of a monarchist to assassinate Vienna mayor Karl Seitz.
 ♦ 1929 4 October: The Creditanstalt Bank takes over assets of failed Agricultural Credit Bank (Bodenkreditanstalt).
 ♦ 1930 6 February: Signing of Italian–Austrian Friendship pact. 18
 ♦ May: Proclamation of the Korneuburg Program by Heimwehr.
 ♦ 1931 610 May: Creditanstalt Bank crisis. 20 May: Engelbert Dollfuss becomes Austrian chancellor. 6 September: International Court in the Hague disallows tariff union of Austria and Germany.
 ♦ 1933 30 January: Adolf Hitler becomes German chancellor. 4 March: Austrian Parliament collapses on procedural question. Dollfuss government declares state of emergency and resorts to wartime provision that permits rule by decree. 31 March: Socialist paramilitary Republican Guard disbanded by government. 20 May: Founding of Fatherland Front.
 ♦ 1934 1216 February: Heavy fighting throughout Austria between Heimwehr organizations and Social Democrats. Social Democratic party outlawed. 1 May: Proclamation of authoritarian May Constitution. 25 July: Murder of Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss in failed Nazi putsch. Kurt von Schuschnigg becomes Austrian chancellor.
 ♦ 1935 1114 April: Stresa Conference of France, Great Britain, and Italy affirms independence of Austria. 13 July: Ban on entrance of Habsburg family into Austria lifted.
 ♦ 1936 14 May: Schuschnigg becomes leader of Fatherland Front.
 ♦ 11 July: Agreement between Austria and Nazi Germany recognizing independence of Austria. Amnesty granted to Nazis in Austria. 711
 ♦ October: All paramilitary groups in Austria disbanded.
 ♦ 1938 12 February: Schuschnigg signs Berchtesgaden Agreement with Hitler, permitting Nazi party activity in Austria to resume. 9 March: Schuschnigg announces referendum on Austrian independence, then cancels it under pressure from Hitler. 11 March: Germans march into Austria, which is quickly put under a Nazi regime (Anschluss). 10
 ♦ April: 99.97 percent of Austrians voting in a plebiscite approve of Nazi government.
 ♦ 1939 1 September: World War II begins.
 ♦ 1942 April: Formation of communist-backed Austrian Freedom Front in Carinthian and Styrian mountains. 27 July: United States declares that it never recognized German annexation of Austria.
 ♦ 1943 30 October: Moscow Declaration of Allies that Austria should be “liberated” from German occupation.
 ♦ 1944 18 December: Prewar Austrian political parties begin discussing provisional government. 05 Group begins organizing armed resistance to Nazis.
 ♦ 1945 April: Surrender of Nazis in Austria to Allied armies. Bitter fighting in Vienna. 23 April: Establishment of multiparty provisional government. May: World War II in Europe ends. 25 November: First free elections since 1930 held in Austria, with Austrian People’s Party (ÖVP) and Social Democrats (SPÖ) receiving largest number of votes.
 ♦ 1946 7 January: Occupation powers recognize new federal Austrian government. 26 July: Nationalization of heavy industry, transportation facilities, and utilities by Austrian National Assembly.
 ♦ 1947 14 January25 February: Negotiations on an Austrian state treaty begin in London. 20 November: Austrian Communist Party withdraws from coalition government.
 ♦ 1948 20 July: Marshall Plan agreement signed between Austria and the United States; aid begins to arrive in Austria.
 ♦ 1949 19 June: Soviet Union announces that it will no longer support Yugoslav territorial claims in Austria.
 ♦ 1950 7 March: Austrian government asks Allied powers to alter conditions and financing of occupation. SeptemberOctober: Sovietsupported general strike in key Austrian industries.
 ♦ 1951 19 January: State of war between Austria and Yugoslavia ends.
 ♦ 6 May: First popular election of a president of the Austrian republic.
 ♦ 1952 2 April: Austrian governments protests continuation of Allied occupation. 20 December: General Assembly of the United Nations adopts resolution asking Allied powers to agree on an Austrian state treaty.
 ♦ 1953 5 March: Death of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. 1 July: Marshall Plan aid for Austria runs out. 31 August: Soviet Union, following France, Great Britain, and United States, stops billing Austria for occupation costs.
 ♦ 1955 1114 April: Austrian delegation to Moscow assures Soviet Union of willingness to remain neutral. 15 May: Signing of Austrian State Treaty. 25 October: Evacuation of all Allied troops from Austria completed. 15 December: Austria allowed to enter United Nations.
 ♦ 1956 2 March: Austria the 15th state to join Council of Europe. 28 May: First muster of Austrian army. 15 October: Vienna chosen as permanent site for International Organization for the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. 23 October: Hungarian uprising against Soviet occupation. Austria will eventually host 152, 218 Hungarian refugees.
 ♦ 1957 1 January: Television broadcasting starts in Austria. 9 February: Beginning of Austrian–Italian disagreement over status of Germanspeaking minority in South Tyrol. 25 July: Soviet Union agrees to accept goods rather than oil as part of Austria’s war reparations payments. 1 October: First conference of Nuclear Energy Organization held in Vienna. 15 December: Austria signs European Human Rights Convention.
 ♦ 1958 6 May: Opening of Austrian pavilion at Brussels International World’s Fair. 17 July: Austria declares U.S. use of Austrian air space in military transportation to Lebanon a violation of Austrian neutrality. 22
 ♦ July: United States apologizes for violation of Austrian neutrality.
 ♦ 1959 20 February6 March: Tensions between Austria and Italy over South Tyrol grow sharper. Austrian consulate in Rome attacked with Molotov cocktail on 6 March. 21 September: Austrian Foreign Minister Bruno Kreisky addresses United Nations General Assembly on South Tyrol problem.
 ♦ 1960 1 January: Austria joins European Free Trade Association.
 ♦ 1961 New levels of violence reached in South Tyrol problem. 5 June: Otto Habsburg, son of Charles I of Habsburg–Lorraine, declares his loyalty to the Austrian republic. 15 November: Beginning of debate over South Tyrol question at the United Nations. Austrian television begins broadcasting Herr Karl series with Helmut Qualtinger.
 ♦ 1962 27 March: European Human Rights Commission rejects Slovenian complaint of discrimination in Austria. 4 April: Austrian parliament accepts agreement between Austria and Germany on fiscal and property claims that arose after World War II. August: Austria stands in first place in United Nations (UN) survey of traffic accidents per 100,000 people.
 ♦ 1963 9 March: Foreign Minister Bruno Kreisky rejects Soviet objections to Austrian economic integration into European Economic Community.
 ♦ 2 April: Ministers of European Economic Organization begin discussion of association with Austria. 30 December: Austria makes final delivery of oil as required reparations to Soviet Union.
 ♦ 1964 JanuaryJune: Foreign tourism reaches record high in Austria.
 ♦ 20 February: All Austrian reparations to Soviet Union at an end.
 ♦ 1965 Income from foreign tourism sets another record high. 2
 ♦ March: Ministers of European Economic Community resolve to begin discussions with Austria about a tariff union. 29, 31 March: Clash in Vienna between supporters and opponents from Austrian resistance movement of anti-Semitic professor Taras Boradaikewycz. 915 May: Celebration of 500-year anniversary of founding of University of Vienna.
 ♦ 20 July: Province of Lower Austria issues citizenship papers to Otto von Habsburg and his wife. 26 October: Austrian national holiday celebrated for first time.
 ♦ 1966 19 April: First single-party government in Austria since World War II, under ÖVP with Joseph Klaus as chancellor. 14 May: Taras Boradaikewycz. compelled to retire from Academy for World Trade. 1
 ♦ June: Otto von Habsburg granted an Austrian passport. 16 December: Establishment of Austrian Industrial Management Corporation to oversee state interests in nationalized industry.
 ♦ 1967 20 March: Soviet Union warns Austria against association with European Economic Community. 5 July: Otto von Habsburg makes first visit to Vienna since end of World War II.
 ♦ 1968 Major student and leftist demonstrations throughout the year. 12
 ♦ November: National Assembly lowers voting age to 19.
 ♦ 1969 25 July: Austria and Italy sign agreement on the status of the South Tyrol. 3 November: Subway construction begins in Vienna. At the end of the year, Austria registers highest growth in exports of any European country.
 ♦ 1970 21 April: First SPÖ single-party government in Second Austrian Republic, with Bruno Kreisky as federal chancellor.
 ♦ 1971 15 July: Required active military service in Austria reduced to six months, with 60 days of supplementary training to be fulfilled at 15 days per calendar year. 1 September: State assumes cost of Catholic schools in Austria. 1 October: Chancellor Bruno Kreisky declares that state has no further plans for nationalizing industry. 22 December: Kurt Waldheim becomes Secretary General of the United Nations.
 ♦ 1972 1 January: Austrian workweek now 42 hours. 22 July: Austria, along with other European Free Trade Association (EFTA) members, signs agreement with European Economic Community on trade relations.
 ♦ 1973 Austria has highest growth rate of any industrialized state in Europe. 1 January: Value-added tax in effect in Austria. 16 January: Austria a member of the United Nations Security Council for the first time. 28 September: First act of Palestinian terrorism in Austria. Jewish hostages freed after government agrees to close Jewish transit center in Lower Austria.
 ♦ 1974 14 January: Trade Ministry orders an “automobile free day” to meet gasoline crisis. 23 June: Rudolph Kirchschläger elected president in an election in which 94.6 percent of all Austrians eligible to vote did so, a record rate of participation.
 ♦ 1975 11 April: National Assembly passes Reorganization of University Law. All higher schools (Hochschulen) become universities. 21 December: Terrorists attack meeting of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in Vienna. Perpetrators allowed to leave Austria safely.
 ♦ 1976 7 July: Ethnic Groups Act regulating language use in schooling and public life for Croats and Slovenes in Austria. 3 December: 400,000 rounds of ammunition sequestered from army supplies and destined for Syria discovered at Vienna airport in Schwechat.
 ♦ 1977 19 January: National Assembly begins inquiry into munitions affair and its implications for Austrian neutrality. 1 May: Austrian unemployment at a low of 1 percent.
 ♦ 1978 5 November: In a plebiscite, 50.47 percent of Austrians voting reject activation of atomic energy plant at Zwentendorf in Lower Austria.
 ♦ 1979 23 August: Opening of UN-City in Vienna. 20 November: Consecration of first mosque in Vienna.
 ♦ 1980 12 March: Kreisky government extends de facto recognition to Palestine Liberation Organization of Yasser Arafat. 8 September: Judicial investigation of massive corruption surrounding construction of new Vienna General Hospital begins. 11 December: Finance Minister Hannes Androsch announces resignation in wake of financial scandals.
 ♦ 1981 1 July: Hannes Androsch becomes director of Creditanstalt Bank. 29 August: Three Arabs attack Vienna synagogue, leaving 2 dead and 20 wounded.
 ♦ 1982 16 May: Former Empress Zita visits Austria for first time in 63 years.
 ♦ 1983 24 April: Bruno Kreisky steps down as chancellor, to be replaced by Fred Sinowatz. 10 September: Pope John Paul II visits Austria for 300th anniversary of defeat of Ottoman army before Vienna. 29 October: Sinowatz elected SPÖ chairperson.
 ♦ 1984 30 March: Vienna City Council authorizes expenditure of 400 million schillings for renovation of historical residential housing. 31
 ♦ March: Study by Austrian Agricultural University shows that about 18 percent of Austrian forests have been damaged by air and ground pollution. 21 October: Green Party wins its first seat ever in a regional parliament in the Vorarlberg.
 ♦ 1985 28 March: Opening of exhibition “Traum und Wirklichkeit on Vienna 1870–1930.” 30 May: Nationalized tire firm Semperit sold to German company because of financial problems. 29 August: Austrian National Assembly proposes law to protect quality of Austrian wines after adulteration scandal.
 ♦ 1986 1 January: Austrians have right to minimum of five weeks vacation. 8 June: Controversial election of Kurt Waldheim as Austrian federal president. Franz Vranitzky replaces Fred Sinowatz as federal chancellor. Small coalition government of SPÖ and Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ). 15 September: Jörg Haider elected head of FPÖ; resignation of Sinowatz as federal chancellor in favor of Vranitzky.
 ♦ 1987 21 January: Reconstitution of Grand Coalition between SPÖ and ÖVP. 27 April: United States refuses to allow Kurt Waldheim to enter country. 1 September: Austrian historical commission to investigate Waldheim’s role in World War II begins work.
 ♦ 1988 24 January: Hannes Androsch resigns as director of Creditanstalt Bank. 2 February: Austrian historical commission investigatxxxviii ing Waldheim concludes that he did not participate in war crimes, but may have known about them. 25 April: Government coalition partners agree on modest extension of shopping hours in Austria.
 ♦ 1989 14 March: Former Empress Zita dies in Switzerland. 7 July: Foreign Minister Alois Mock submits Austrian application for membership in European Community. 10 August: Soviet ambassador to Austria presents Russian reservations about status of Austrian neutrality should Austria join EC. 10 September: Hungary opens border with Austria for citizens of German Democratic Republic to cross freely.
 ♦ 17 December: Alois Mock and Jiri Dienstbier, Czechoslovak foreign minister symbolically split the “Iron Curtain” at Czechoslovak Austrian border.
 ♦ 1990 19 July: Death of Bruno Kreisky. 13 August: Austria joins United Nations in sanctions against Iraq. 25 August: President Kurt Waldheim wins release of Austrian hostages from Iraq. 7 October: Federal elections reconfirm Grand Coalition of SPÖ and ÖVP. 6 November: World War II Allies accept Austrian modifications of 1955 State Treaty. 13 December: Austrian investigators declare Slovak atomic power plant in Bohumice unsafe.
 ♦ 1991 21 June: Jörg Haider forced to resign as governor of Carinthia. Kurt Waldheim announces that he will not run for a second term as federal president.
 ♦ 1992 24 May: Thomas Klestil elected federal president. 26 June: More restrictive new law on asylum made operative.
 ♦ 1993 8 July: Franz Vranitzky pays first official visit of an Austrian federal chancellor to Israel. 1 February: Austria begins formal negotiations for entry into European Community. 4 February: Founding of Liberal Forum (LiF) in split with the FPÖ. Initiative to restrict immigration receives 417, 278 signatures. 1 July: New law on foreign residence in effect.
 ♦ 1994 1 March: Agreement between Austria and the European Union (EU) on conditions of Austrian membership. 12 June: 66.6 percent of voters participating in referendum approve Austria’s entry into European Union. 11 November: National Assembly ratifies EU agreement on Austria.
 ♦ 1995 1 January: Austria becomes member of EU and removes customs controls at borders for EU member states. 5 January: Austria begins participation in currency exchange and intervention mechanisms of EU. Konsum, a large national grocery chain founded by socialists in 19th century, declares bankruptcy.
 ♦ 1996 13 October: In elections to European Parliament, SPÖ fails to win more than the narrowest possible plurality. Austria records negative balance of trade for 14th consecutive year.
 ♦ 1997 12 January: Creditanstalt Bank sold to Bank Austria after extensive negotiations. 18 January: Franz Vranitzky steps down as federal chancellor in favor of Viktor Klima, who is sworn in on 28 January.
 ♦ 27 February: First female instrumentalist joins Vienna Philharmonic.
 ♦ 13 March: SPÖ and ÖVP agree on changes to immigration law that stress integration of foreigners into Austrian society rather than simply setting terms of entry. 17 April: National Assembly eases restrictions on Austrian participation in international peacekeeping forces
 ♦ 1998 13 January: Minister of Culture and Education Elisabeth Gehrer announces program to inventory materials acquired by Austrian museums during and after World War II. 1 April: First female recruits enter Austrian military. 19 April: Thomas Klestil elected to second term as Austrian president. 5 May: Both chambers of Austrian parliament memorialize victims of National Socialism for the first time. 1
 ♦ July: Austria is first new member of EU to hold office of president. 28
 ♦ July: Julius Meinl, tradition-laden Austrian grocery chain, acquired by German Rewe conglomerate. 5 November: National Assembly agrees unanimously to return artworks illegally acquired during and after World War II to rightful owners. 28 November: National Assembly agrees upon a program to establish “secure third countries” to which asylum seekers can be sent.
 ♦ 1999 25 January: Intense discussion of economic cooperation among Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia at annual meeting. 11 February: Austria returns several artworks to full possession of the Rothschild family. 14 February: Austria wins 14 medals and first place at international ski competition in Vail, Colorado. 8 April: Jörg Haider reelected by provincial legislature to governorship of Carinthia. 13 May: Despite massive Austrian protests, the Czech Republic resolves to complete construction of nuclear energy facility at Temelin. 27 May: Federal government forbids cultivation of genetically engineered corn.
 ♦ 4 June: Chancellor Viktor Klima declares that Austria will refuse taking military action not covered by the UN Charter. 14 July: Austria introduces bachelor’s degree that requires six to eight semesters of study at a university. 4 October: FPÖ makes substantial gains in elections to National Assembly. 12 November: Massive demonstration of around 25,000 people in Vienna against racism and National Socialism.
 ♦ 2000 6 January: U.S. Court in New York agrees to collective settlement for victims of Nazi regime in Austria and Bank Austria. 4 February: Coalition government of ÖVP and FPÖ sworn in. European Union threatens, then implements, sanctions against Austria. 19 February: Demonstration on Vienna’s Heldenplatz against new government. 24
 ♦ February: Regular Thursday demonstrations in Vienna against new government begin. 28 February: Jörg Haider withdraws from coalition government, to be replaced by Susanne Riess-Passer. 12 April: Federal President Thomas Klestil pleads before the European Parliament for end of sanctions. 1 May: Riess-Passer becomes chair of FPÖ.
 ♦ 17 August: Bank for Labor and Economic Developments (BAWAG) takes over Austrian Postal Savings Bank. 12 September: European Union announces that sanctions have been lifted. 20 November: Shares of Telekom Austria offered on the New York Stock Exchange for the first time.
 ♦ 2001 17 January: Austria and the United States agree on amount of compensation for Jewish victims of Austrian Nazi regime. 23 January: Chancellor Wolfgang Schüssel declares that Austria is not neutral but “alliance free.” 29 January: Foreign Minister Benita Ferrero-Waldner declares that Austria’s neutrality is its affair alone. 31 January: National Assembly unanimously approves a law compensating victims of Nazi “Arianization” policy. 8 February11 February: Russian president Vladimir Putin visits Austria to express his reservations about Austrian membership in NATO. 20 May: Austrian director Michael Haneke wins Cannes Film Festival prize for The Piano Player, based on the novel by Elfriede Jelinek. 28 June: Opening of the new Museum Quartier. 1 October: Electricity supply network privatized. 12 December: National Assembly and political parties declare Austria an “alliance free” state. 13 December: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) designates the historical center of Vienna as part of the world’s cultural heritage.
 ♦ 2002 1 January: The euro replaces the schilling as Austria’s official currency. 8 January: The federal council of ministers authorizes deployment of 60 Austrian military personnel for Afghanistan peacekeeping force. 28 February: As part of program to make higher education more efficient, Education Minister Elisabeth Gehrer proposes separating medical faculties from universities and making baccalaureate a terminal degree at Austrian vocational colleges. 18 April: Opening of the controversial Austrian Cultural Forum building in New York, designed by Austrian architect Rainer Abraham. 24 June: Constitutional Court declares prohibitions against homosexual relations illegal. 6 August: Massive flooding after unprecedented rainfall in Lower and Upper Austria and Salzburg. Cost of damage roughly 8 billion euros. 3 September: Half of delegates at FPÖ convention express dissatisfaction with government leadership. 8 September: Three ministers from FPÖ, including Vice-Chancellor Riess-Passer, resign from government. 27 September: Hundreds of asylum seekers in Austria sent out of country because their petitions had no chance for success. 26 November: Chancellor Schüssel asked to form another government.
 ♦ 2003 21 January: Statistics indicate that Austrian birth rate is climbing. 24 January: Chancellor Schüssel declares that Austria will not participate in any coalition to invade Iraq. 24 February: Commission of Historians finds that Austria was dilatory in addressing issue of victims of National Socialism. 28 February: New coalition government of ÖVP and FPÖ sworn in. Wolfgang Schüssel once more chancellor. 20 March: Austria declares its neutrality in the case of Iraq and closes its air space to combatants. 23 June: Venerable Viennese baking firm Ankerbrot sold to German company. 20 July: Israel announces that it will send its first ambassador to Austria. 29 August: Private television broadcasting begins in Austria. 1 August: Extended evening and Saturday shopping hours start in Austria. 5 November: Federal government announces national scientific research initiative.
 ♦ 2004 14 February: Architects from firm Coop Himmelb(l)au win international competition to design the European Central Bank in Frankfurt. 16 February: Index of Vienna Stock Exchange (ATX) closes at a record high of 1,803.42 points. 18 February: Ministry of the Interior announces that applications for asylum in Austria have dropped by almost 39 percent. 2 March: Council of Ministers resolves to inxlii crease Austrian military presence in Bosnia–Herzegovina. 28 March: Austrian swimmer Markus Rogan sets European record for 200-meter backstroke (1:51.37). 30 March: Provincial elections show a decline of support for Austrian Freedom Party. 31 March: Jörg Haider once again chosen governor by Carinthian provincial legislature. 24 April: Heinz Fischer elected Austrian president, the first Socialist candidate to win the office since 1980. 3 October: Former Emperor Charles I beatified by Pope John Paul II.
 ♦ 2005 Year of Remembrance of Defeat of National Socialism (1945); the signing of the Austrian State Treaty (1955) and accession to the European Union (1995). April: Founding of the Alliance for the Future of Austria (BZÖ) by Jörg Haider and other disgruntled members of Freedom Party. 9 July: Vienna Police Commissioner Roland Horgacher suspended from office based on allegations of receiving improper gifts and passing confidential information to journalists. 11 November: British Holocaust denier David Irving arrested in Vienna for expressing doubts about existence of Auschwitz gas chambers in 1989.
 ♦ 2006 20 February: David Irving convicted and sentenced to three years in prison. On 20 December, Irving’s sentence was commuted. He was quickly deported to the United Kingdom. April: Effort begins to sell the financially unsound Bank for Labor and Economic Development (BAWAG) to investment houses around the world. 19 June: Former American ambassador to Austria Ronald Lauder purchases Gustav Klimt’s portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer for a record $135 million. The picture belonged to an Austrian emigré, Maria Altmann. August: Ongoing scandal over use of illegal home care worker by relative of Chancellor Schüssel. 23 August: Of 45 planned research initiative centers, only 15 remain operative. 1 September: Heavily publicized debut of daily newspaper, Österreich, which openly challenges established Austrian press both economically and stylistically. 1 October: State elections lead to an extremely tight race between the ÖVP and the SPÖ, neither of which receives achieve a majority. Close to 25 percent of vote goes to small parties.
 ♦ 2007 9 January: Socialist Alfred Gusenbauer forms coalition government with the ÖVP. 19 August: Six Austrians on the long list of 20 for the prestigious German Book Prize. 24 August: Government announces that as part of its reform of bureaucracy, in 2008–2009, only one-half of personnel vacancies will be filled. 25 August: Head of Islamic community in Austria announces need for new mosques.
 ♦ 2008 8 July: Vice-Chancellor Wilhelm Molterer withdraws ÖVP from coalition. Chancellor Gusenbauer announces new elections for September 28. 2 September: Voting age in Austria lowered to 16. 28
 ♦ September: Far-right Austrian Freedom Party (FPÖ) and Alliance for the Future of Austria (BZÖ) take 29 percent of vote in parliamentary elections. SPÖ receives around 30 percent, and the ÖVP 26 percent. 10 October: World financial crisis hits Austria. Short selling forbidden on Vienna Stock Exchange; trading securities forbidden when price fluctuates by more than 10 percent. 11 October: BZÖ leader Jörg Haider killed in car crash. 2 December: Werner Faymann sworn in as chancellor.

Historical dictionary of Austria. . 2014.

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